Will Hydrogen Trucks Replace Internal Combustion?

hydrogen trucks with sleek designs and clean energy labels

George Morfoulis

The history of truck transportation dates back to the late 19th century when the invention of internal combustion engines transformed the transportation landscape.

These engines have powered the majority of vehicles worldwide for over a century, revolutionizing the transportation industry and shaping global commerce.

Throughout the years, various innovations and improvements in engine design have led to more powerful and fuel-efficient trucks, enabling businesses to transport goods over long distances and connect markets like never before

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Current challenges and limitations of internal combustion engines

Despite these advancements, internal combustion engines are now facing several challenges and limitations.

Their reliance on nonrenewable fossil fuels, the emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, and the overall inefficiency of converting fuel into usable energy have led to increasing concerns about climate change, air quality, and the depletion of natural resources.

Countries like Australia have been significantly impacted by climate change, experiencing more frequent and severe weather events, such as bushfires and droughts, further highlighting the need for more sustainable transportation solutions.

Overview of hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative

To address these pressing issues, hydrogen fuel cell technology has emerged as a promising alternative to internal combustion engines.

With the potential to offer cleaner, more efficient, and sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen-powered vehicles are gaining traction globally, including in Australia, where the government has introduced the Australia Hydrogen Roadmap to support the development of hydrogen infrastructure and technology.

This article will explore the basics of hydrogen fuel cells, their advantages, and the potential for hydrogen-powered trucks to replace traditional internal combustion engines in the future.

Basics of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

A. Components of a hydrogen fuel cell


The anode is the negative electrode of the fuel cell, where hydrogen fuel is introduced.

The primary function of the anode is to facilitate the separation of hydrogen molecules into protons and electrons.


The cathode is the positive electrode of the fuel cell, where oxygen (usually from the air) is introduced.

At the cathode, the oxygen molecules combine with protons and electrons to form water, which is released as a byproduct.


The electrolyte is a medium that facilitates the transport of ions (protons) between the anode and the cathode.

It acts as a barrier to prevent the electrons from passing directly through the cell, forcing them to travel through an external electrical circuit.

B. How hydrogen fuel cells work

Electrochemical reactions

Hydrogen fuel cells rely on electrochemical reactions to generate electricity.

At the anode, hydrogen molecules are separated into protons and electrons.

The protons travel through the electrolyte to the cathode, while the electrons move through an external circuit, generating an electric current.

Generation of electricity, water, and heat

As the electrons travel through the external circuit and recombine with the protons and oxygen at the cathode, water is formed as a byproduct.

The electrochemical reactions in a fuel cell also generate heat, which can be used for various purposes, such as heating buildings or providing warmth in cold environments.

C. Types of hydrogen fuel cells

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells

PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte, making them lightweight and compact.

They operate at relatively low temperatures (around 80°C) and can start quickly, making them suitable for use in vehicles, such as cars and trucks.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)

SOFCs use a solid ceramic material as the electrolyte, allowing them to operate at high temperatures (between 600°C and 1000°C).

These fuel cells are more efficient than PEM fuel cells but have a slower startup time.

They are typically used in stationary power generation applications, such as in buildings or remote locations.


There are several other types of hydrogen fuel cells, including Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFCs), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs), and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs).

Each type has its unique advantages and applications, depending on factors such as operating temperature, efficiency, and durability.

Advantages of Hydrogen Trucks

A. Zero-emission transportation

One of the primary advantages of hydrogen trucks is their potential for zero-emission transportation.

When hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity, the only byproduct is water, unlike internal combustion engines, which emit greenhouse gases and air pollutants.

This makes hydrogen-powered trucks a more environmentally friendly alternative, contributing to cleaner air and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

B. Fuel efficiency and energy density

Hydrogen fuel cells are more energy-efficient than traditional internal combustion engines, as they can convert a higher percentage of the fuel’s energy into usable electricity.

Moreover, hydrogen has a high energy density by weight, which means that it can store more energy per unit mass than fossil fuels.

This advantage translates to longer driving ranges and shorter refueling times for hydrogen trucks compared to battery electric vehicles, making them more suitable for long-haul transportation.

C. Noise reduction

Hydrogen fuel cell trucks generate less noise than their internal combustion engine counterparts.

The absence of moving parts and combustion processes in the fuel cell system results in quieter operation.

This reduced noise pollution can improve the quality of life for people living near highways and trucking routes and provide a more comfortable driving experience for truck drivers.

D. Renewable and sustainable fuel source

Hydrogen can be produced from various renewable sources, such as solar, wind, or hydroelectric power, through the process of electrolysis.

This capability makes hydrogen a sustainable and renewable fuel source that can help reduce the transportation sector’s dependence on fossil fuels.

Additionally, producing hydrogen from renewable sources can further decrease the overall carbon footprint of hydrogen trucks, contributing to a greener and more sustainable transportation system.

Challenges Facing Hydrogen Trucks

Despite their advantages, hydrogen trucks face several challenges.

These include issues related to hydrogen production and storage, fuel cell durability and lifespan, infrastructure development such as hydrogen refueling stations and distribution networks, and high initial costs and market acceptance.

A. Hydrogen production and storage

Electrolysis and steam methane reforming

Hydrogen can be produced through various methods, including electrolysis and steam methane reforming (SMR).

Electrolysis involves using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, while SMR involves reacting methane with steam to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

While electrolysis can be powered by renewable sources, it can be less efficient and more expensive than SMR. On the other hand, SMR, which is currently the most common method of hydrogen production, relies on natural gas and results in greenhouse gas emissions.

This challenge necessitates a transition to cleaner and more efficient methods of hydrogen production.

High-pressure storage tanks

Storing hydrogen in a compact and safe manner is another challenge for hydrogen trucks.

Hydrogen is typically stored in high-pressure tanks, which can add weight and complexity to the vehicle.

Moreover, these tanks need to be designed and tested to ensure safety and reliability under various operating conditions, which can contribute to increased costs.

B. Fuel cell durability and lifespan

The durability and lifespan of hydrogen fuel cells are crucial factors for the widespread adoption of hydrogen trucks.

Current fuel cell systems can have shorter lifespans than traditional internal combustion engines, and their performance can degrade over time.

Ongoing research and development efforts are aimed at improving the durability and longevity of fuel cells to make them more competitive with conventional engine technologies.

C. Infrastructure development

Hydrogen refueling stations

One of the significant challenges facing the adoption of hydrogen trucks is the lack of refueling infrastructure.

The availability of hydrogen refueling stations is limited, particularly when compared to gasoline or diesel stations.

Building a comprehensive network of hydrogen refueling stations is essential for the widespread adoption of hydrogen trucks and ensuring their practicality for long-haul transportation.

Distribution networks

In addition to refueling stations, an efficient hydrogen distribution network is required to transport hydrogen from production sites to refueling stations.

This network may include pipelines, trucks, or trains, and its development is vital for the success of hydrogen trucks.

D. High initial costs and market acceptance

The initial costs of hydrogen trucks and fuel cell systems can be higher than those of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.

This price barrier can hinder the adoption of hydrogen trucks, particularly for cost-sensitive fleet operators.

Additionally, market acceptance of hydrogen technology depends on overcoming misconceptions about hydrogen safety and reliability, as well as demonstrating the advantages of hydrogen trucks over traditional vehicles.

Comparing Hydrogen Trucks to Other Alternatives

A. Battery electric trucks

Range and charging infrastructure

Battery electric trucks rely on rechargeable battery packs to store and provide power for the vehicle’s electric motor.

They offer several advantages, such as zero tailpipe emissions, low operating costs, and reduced noise pollution.

However, battery electric trucks often have limited range compared to hydrogen and conventional fuel trucks, making them more suitable for short-haul or urban transportation.

Additionally, the charging infrastructure for electric trucks is still developing, and the charging times can be longer than refueling times for hydrogen or conventional fuel trucks.

Environmental and resource considerations

While battery electric trucks have a lower carbon footprint during operation, the production and disposal of batteries can have significant environmental impacts.

The mining and processing of raw materials, such as lithium and cobalt, for battery production can result in ecological damage and human rights concerns.

Moreover, the recycling and disposal of spent batteries pose challenges in terms of resource recovery and waste management.

B. Biofuel and natural gas-powered trucks

Emissions and energy efficiency

Trucks powered by biofuels or natural gas offer another alternative to traditional internal combustion engines.

Biofuels, derived from plant or animal sources, can have lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels, depending on the feedstock and production methods. Natural gas, while still a fossil fuel, typically produces fewer emissions than diesel or gasoline.

However, both biofuels and natural gas have lower energy density than diesel fuel, which can result in reduced fuel efficiency and shorter driving ranges.

Production and availability

The widespread adoption of biofuel and natural gas-powered trucks depends on the availability and scalability of these fuels.

Biofuel production can compete with food production for land and water resources, raising concerns about food security and environmental impacts.

Natural gas, while more abundant than oil, is still a finite resource and subject to price fluctuations and geopolitical issues.

In contrast, hydrogen can be produced from various renewable sources, offering a potentially more sustainable and secure fuel option.

Current State of Hydrogen Truck Adoption

A. Hydrogen truck manufacturers and models

Nikola Motor Company

Nikola Motor Company is an American manufacturer focusing on the development of hydrogen fuel cell and battery-electric trucks.

Their hydrogen truck model, the Nikola Tre, is designed for long-haul transportation and boasts a range of up to 500-750 miles, depending on the configuration.

The company aims to establish a network of hydrogen refueling stations to support its customers and facilitate the adoption of hydrogen trucks.


The Japanese automaker Toyota has been a pioneer in hydrogen fuel cell technology, with its Mirai passenger car being one of the first commercially available fuel cell vehicles.

Toyota has also ventured into the hydrogen truck market with the development of the Toyota Project Portal, a Class 8 heavy-duty fuel cell truck designed for port drayage operations.

The truck features a driving range of around 300 miles and a quick refueling time.


Hyundai, a South Korean automotive manufacturer, has developed the Hyundai XCIENT Fuel Cell, a hydrogen-powered heavy-duty truck.

The XCIENT has a range of approximately 250 miles per refueling and is designed for regional transportation and logistics.

Hyundai has already begun exporting the XCIENT to markets such as Europe and is working on expanding its fuel cell technology to other commercial vehicle applications.

B. Government policies and incentives in Australia and Europe

Australia Hydrogen Roadmap

The Australian government has developed the National Hydrogen Strategy to support the growth of a hydrogen industry in the country.

The roadmap outlines various measures to promote hydrogen production, infrastructure development, and the deployment of hydrogen technologies in transportation and other sectors.

This includes funding and policy support for research, development, and demonstration projects, as well as incentives for the adoption of hydrogen trucks and other fuel cell vehicles.

The European Hydrogen Roadmap

The European Commission has also introduced a comprehensive hydrogen strategy to accelerate the development of hydrogen technologies across the continent.

The European Hydrogen Roadmap aims to establish a competitive and sustainable hydrogen market, with specific targets for hydrogen production, infrastructure development, and the deployment of hydrogen-powered vehicles, including trucks.

The strategy includes financial support, regulatory measures, and collaboration between public and private stakeholders to ensure the widespread adoption of hydrogen as a clean and sustainable energy carrier.


A. Prospects for hydrogen trucks replacing internal combustion engines

Hydrogen trucks have the potential to revolutionize the transportation industry by offering a cleaner, more efficient, and sustainable alternative to internal combustion engines.

As technology advances and the challenges surrounding hydrogen production, storage, and infrastructure are addressed, hydrogen trucks could increasingly become a viable option for long-haul transportation.

The continued support from governments, industry, and research institutions will be crucial in accelerating the development and adoption of hydrogen trucks.

B. Remaining challenges and potential solutions

While hydrogen trucks show great promise, there are still several challenges that need to be overcome before they can replace internal combustion engines on a large scale.

These challenges include the development of efficient and clean hydrogen production methods, improvements in fuel cell durability and lifespan, expansion of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, and reduction of the initial costs associated with hydrogen vehicles.

By addressing these challenges through research, development, and collaboration between stakeholders, hydrogen trucks can become a more competitive and viable alternative to traditional engine technologies.

C. Role of hydrogen trucks in the future of transportation and sustainability

As the world moves towards cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, hydrogen trucks can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution in the transportation sector.

By replacing internal combustion engines, hydrogen trucks can contribute to the global efforts to mitigate climate change and promote a more sustainable future for transportation.

Companies like AGM Finance offer truck loans in Australia, helping businesses and fleet operators transition to cleaner and more sustainable transportation solutions by making hydrogen trucks more accessible and affordable.

By providing truck loans and other financial incentives, AGM Finance and similar companies can accelerate the shift towards hydrogen-powered transportation and reinforce Australia’s commitment to a greener and more sustainable future.


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